Illustrated Introduction Series: No. 13                                  May 30, 2010 © 2010

L-M Braiding Research & Informa tion Center / Masako Kinoshita

5 Winthrop Place, Ithaca, NY 14850 U. S. A.

Phone & Fax 607-257-0886 e-mail ::mkinoshi@twcny.rr.com

 

 

L-M BRIC News No.13

 

 

ILLUSTRATED L-M BRAIDIMG INSTRUCTION SERIES: #13

ILLUSTRATED L-M BRAIDIMG INSTRUCTION SERIES: #13 Nihongo-ban

 

 

Three Warp-twining Braids

 

Simple flat strings made by combining a pair of twines with a cross element that goes through each twist (eye) of the twines may be at the root of ideas that developed into such distinguished techniques as tablet-weaving, or ayatake braids, braids with names with Genji pre-fixes, or those of oblique twining, in the traditional Japanese stand-and-bobbin braiding.

 

In this issue we take up the three braids that contain a parallel pair of twines. Of the three, two have been presented in the past issues of the News. Here we will analyze the procedures for making them and their structures. Then we will discuss their developmental possibilities including 'improving' their structures.

 

THE THREE BRAIDS

1.       8-element parallel-twine square braid

Number of loops: 4.

Source: document #2 from Karlsruhe, Germany. (News No. 6, 2003.)

2.       "Green Dorge = Grains d'Orge (Oat)"

Number of loops: 6.

Source: Tollemache Book of Secrets; Treatise for Making of Laces #38,

3.       "Kulenaki'iya = Bridle

Number of loops: 8.

Source: Wale'Keru #13, (News No. 10, 2007)

 

 

HOW TO BRAID

1.       8-element parallel-twine square braid

Number of loops: 4. 2 loops in K color, other 2 loops in M color

Initial arrangement of the loops:

Design #1: mount one each of K color loops on La and Rd, and one each of M color loops on Ra and Ld.

Design #2: K color loops on La and Ra, M color loops on Ld and Rd.

 

How to braid 8-element parallel-twine square braid

fig.1-1 
fig.1-2





Step 1: Insert the tip of Ld into ra and take it by the upper shank. (Now ra is ld2. The upper shank is still in the upper position on Ld.)

Step 2: Pass over ld2, and insert the tip of Ra under the upper shank of ld, and take it passing around the outside of ld2. (Now ld and ra have exchanged their positions.)

3 Karlsruhe braidsStep 3: Insert the tip of La into rd and hook up the upper shank of rd and take it. (Now rd is la2)

Step 4: Pass over la2, and insert the tip of Rd under the upper shank of la, and take it passing around the outside of la2.

Tighten the crosses of the strands by gripping the loops in each hand and pull in opposite directions.  Repeat the steps 1 and 2.

 

Photo: swatches from top

Design #1, design #2, design #1 variation using white for la and red for rd, about 4 times fatter than the black loops, ld and ra.

 


2. Treatise for Making of Laces #38, "Green Dorge = Grains d'Orge (Oat)"

Number of loops: 6

Initial arrangement of loops: Mount one each of K color loops on b, c, of both hands, and then M color loop on la and N color loop on rd.

fig. 2 

How to braid Green Dorge:

Step 1: Insert Ra through rb and rc, and take lc 'crossed.'

Shift lb to Lc.

Step 2: Insert Lb through lc, and take rc 'crossed.'

Shift down ra and rb to rb and rc.

Tighten the structure.

green dorgeStep 3: Exchange la and rd as done at Step 2 of braid 1.

Tighten the structure.

Repeat steps 1through 3.

 

Photo: Green Dorge swatches

From top: 6-strand cotton embroidery yarn, Persian yarn.

 

3. Wale'Keru #13, "Kulenaki'iya" = Bridle

Number of loops: 8

Initial arrangement of loops: Mount one each of K color loops on La, Lb, Lc, Rb, Rc and Rd, and then M color loop on Ld, N color loop on Ra.

 fig. 3

How to braid Kulenaki'iya.

Step 1: Insert Lc through rd, rc and take rb 'Open.' rb becomes lc2.

Step 2: Insert rb through lc2, lc, lb and take la 'Open.'

Shifting of loops 1: put lc2 temporarily on rb and shift lb and lc to La and Lb. Then put lc2 back on Lc.

Shifting of loops 2: put rb temporarily on lb and shift rc and rd to Rb and Rc. Then shift rb (temporarily on Lb) to Rd.

Tighten the structure.bridle

Step 3: Exchange ld and ra as done step 1 of braid 1.

Tighten the structure.

Repeat steps 1through3.

 

Photo: Bridle swatches:

Using 6-strand cotton embroidery yarn

 

Analysis of the procedures:

Of the three braids;

Steps 1 and 2 of #1, 8-element parallel-twine square braid, each forms a pair of counter twisted twines.

The two pairs diagonally cross and bind the pair of twines to each other thus forming a braid with a square cross section.

 

Steps 1 and 2 of #2, Tollemache #38, "Green Dorge, are a procedure for making a square braid but using four loops using five fingers, the lb, lc, rb and rc, rather than five loops as in the regular formula. Accordingly the initial arrangement of the loops is different from the regular square-braid procedure. As the result, the left operator is the middle finger instead of the index finger. From the way the operators are inserted before taking the running loops, however, you realize the procedure belongs to that of method 1.

Step 3 forms a pair of counter-twisted twines bound by the square braid constructed by steps 1 and 2.

 

The steps 1 and 2 for #3, Bridle, the Guajiro braid #13, form simultaneously two 2-ridge flat braids using 6 loops that are mounted on La, Lb, Lc, Rb, Rc, and Rd.

Lc, bearing lc, works as an operator for step 1 and holds a second loop, lc2. Rb is used as the operator for step 2 in place of Rd and takes la.

Shifting 1 and 2 have to do with adjusting of the temporary positions of those loops to the final destinations. If rc and rd are shifted to rb and rc right after the step 1, there would be no need of 'shifting of loops 2' and the procedure would have been less confusing.

When the shifting processes have been done, rb will have been transferred 'open' to lc having gone through the loops rd and rc, and la 'open' to rd through the loops lb and lc. This means that this portion of the procedure is 'twin 6-element flat braids' using method 2.

Step 3 forms a pair of counter-twisted twines, which are bound by the two flat braids constructed by steps 1 and 2.

It should be noted that the Guajiros are only people so far found that use both method 1 and method 2. In addition, this is the only case so far found of the use of method 2 outside Asia.

 

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROCEDURES

1. Karlsruhe 8-ele. Parallel Twines

Braids structurally identical to this one exist in KUMIHIMO (narabi kakuyatsu). What is amazing about this procedure is that it is so simple.

Variations in which one or two more pairs of twines are added on to the vacant fingers are possible. Using much heavier strands for one of the loop pairs yields a more prominent heart-shaped pattern.

2. Green Dorge

The square braid portion in the Green Dorge braid is made using 4 loops. The 4-loop square braids, as you know, have a skewed structure, giving uneven selvages to the finished flat braid.

To remedy the uneven selvages, you may add one more loop taking advantage of the empty ld. This makes the first two steps to 5-loop-square-braid procedure. This will yield a braid with more even selvages. To make the selvage more even, use 'open' transfer and make two 2-ridge flat braids in place of a square braid.

3. Bridle

As you can see 6 loops are used for the two 2-ridge flat braids in the Bridle braid. This means that the 2-ridge flat braids have the 3-2 twill pattern. As a result, the Bridle braid has uneven selvages. While I appreciated that this must be a result of the effort to use as many loops as possible, you see that more is not always better. If you remove the loop from lc and make this a 7-loop procedure (5 loops for the 2 flat braids portion), the selvage would be symmetric (and the shifting processes would be simpler, too).

As the result of the suggested "improvements" to the two braids above, you end up with two structurally identical braids. One, however, was constructed using method 1 and the other method 2.